Here is a quick list of the linux file system (FS) directories and what they are for.  This has helped me find my way around a fair bit.

/bin – binaries, basic binary files/programs – everyday commands, system wide etc
/boot – boot files (boot loader and kernels – like the files you’d find in c:\ ? )
/cdrom – cdrom (legacy, not really used anymore, CD-ROMs used to be mounted here)
/dev – devices, all hardware is represented by files
/etc – et cetera, all config files (system wide “all users”) superuser directory use “sudo …”
/home – home folder, like “c:\users” on windows – user settings, configs etc
/lib
/lib32
/lib64 – libraries, used by /bin and /sbin, programs get library files from here similar to shared *.dll files in windows
/lost+found – recycle bin (this is a hidden directory)
/media – media mount, permanently mount secondary devices, devices mounted here (system mounted here)
/mnt – mount, devices mounted here (manually mounted here)
/opt – optional, manually installed files/programs from vendors installed here
/proc – processes, sudo files here, all process information running is stored here
/root – root user’s home folder
/run – run, temp file system – loaded in RAM, has run-time information
/sbin – system binaries, system admin has access to
/snap – snap packages, self contained programs
/srv – service, directory where server programs store files for external users
/sys – system, folder to interact with the kernel (every time system boots)
/tmp – temporary, temp files used by apps etc,
/usr – Unix System Resources (like \windows\system32 folder), user application space, where bin apps installed that are used
by the user, note: /bin is used by system
/var – variable, contains files that are expected to grow, crash info, logs, printer spools etc

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